PGD/PGS/PGT-A: A boon for couples with genetic issues
Many patients face the issue of genetic conditions while undergoing IVF. For this, we utilize pre-implantation genetic testing (PGT).
Generally, PGT is comprised of two procedures:
PGS- preimplantation genetic screening
PGD-preimplantation genetic diagnosis
The procedures are separate and different and are used interchangeably.
What is PGD/PGS/PGT-A?
Preimplantation genetic testing is a procedure for identifying a congenital defect or condition in an embryo much before it is implanted in the womb during embryo transfer. This helps in separating the defective embryos from the normal ones. It also helps to detect genetic problems or an abnormal number of chromosomes in an embryo. Getting back a PGT selected healthy embryo enhances the chances of having a healthy baby. PGD is appreciable when dealing with couples who have a family history of severe or deadly disease, and stop the defect from passing on to their offsprings. It is generally seen in cases of single-gene disorders.
The primary task of PGS is to check whether the cells in an embryo have the normal number of chromosomes or not. Strictly speaking, PGS allows for an embryo with a normal chromosome to be transferred into the uterus. The risk of aneuploid embryos increases with the increase in the age of the woman, and an abnormal embryo is very likely to result in a failed pregnancy. PGS also helps to alleviate severe male factor infertility and allows couples with a previous history of recurrent miscarriages.
Another important fact is that PGT cannot be used for sex selection.
PGD comes as a boon for couples that are faced with the risk of genetic diseases in their offspring. A critical analysis of the case is needed before going ahead with PGS. If you feel like you are the right candidate for PGD/PGS/PGT-A, meet an expert to figure out and understand the procedure before going ahead with it.
Uses of PGD/PGS/PGT-A
PGT comes up as a handy tool when the case of infertility is found in any of the partners. The mission of PGT is to monitor and select the chromosomally normal embryos in the laboratories, so that they can be implanted into the uterus of the female partner, eventually increasing the chance of pregnancy. Many factors play a significant role in the pregnancy of a woman. The quality of the eggs is a significant consideration in the same, alongside age, and other factors. Even in case of a failed pregnancy, there is a 60-70% chance if you make use of PGT.
Uses of PGD/PGS/PGT-A
We can safely conclude that PGT is one of the essential diagnostic tools that can be used to prevent the transmission of known genetic disorders. It can also help in populations that are at a comparatively higher risk of having babies with specific congenital abnormalities.
PGT also helps to reduce the trauma of early miscarriages, multiple failed IVF cycles and helps in cases of pregnancy during advanced maternal age. PGT-M helps protects the unborn child from various inherited monogenic disorders. Using the concept of savior sibling, PGT-M can even help to cure some hematological disorders in the affected child.
In short, PGT technology can and should be integrated into ART to offer the best possible results for the patients. This technology should be used judiciously and ethically, and its limitations should be understood.