When talking about fertility, there are numerous cases today where the couples face such issue. Though today, the advancements in the field of science and technology have paved way for the infertile couple, people are still unaware of certain factors which affect female and male fertility. We will discuss some such factors below
1. Hormonal factor
One of the major factors affecting both male and female fertility is their respective hormonal presence. At times the male and female reproductive hormones testosterone and progesterone & estrogen respectively fail to act sufficient for a successful pregnancy. Either they lack in abundance or does not react in a way that could initiate the production of gametes or the process of fertilization. So, basically, the male and female hormones play an important role in their fertility.
2. Male factor
It may still prevail in some parts of the world that only females are responsible for any infertility related issue. But to be precise, in almost 40 per cent of the infertility cases, it is either the male partner who is fully responsible or at least contributes to infertility. They can have the inability of producing health sperms for the process suffer from non-erection of the penis and other such reasons which can make them infertile. So, in every case, the semen analysis or testing the male partner is also necessary to know whether he is responsible for the same!
3. Ovulation factor
The ovulation cycle of females plays an integral part in their reproductive health. It is soon after their menstrual cycle that the eggs are released and the fertilization of these eggs or gametes are further fertilized by the sperms for a healthy pregnancy. Any issue with the ovulatory phase of the women can lead to an unsuccessful pregnancy attempt.
4. Environmental factor
Overexposure to certain climatic conditions like harmful chemicals, pesticides, ultraviolet radiation, frequent and prolonged exposure to heat and cold, etc. can prove to be fatal for the reproductive health of both male and female. These factors can affect the sperm production or lead to mutation of the hormones that initiate childbirth in females and can cause many other such infertility related issues.
5. Age factor
It is actually more effective in case of females where they reach a certain age of being incapable of conceiving. The female fertility remains highly active within the age of mid-30s after which it starts to decline. So, it is always suggested that you plan your pregnancy accordingly to avoid any age-related fertility trouble.
6. Lifestyle-related factors
Excessive smoking, drinking, less sleep, unhealthy food habits are all causes of being infertile. Today, most of the couples lead an unhealthy lifestyle and thus, a higher number of such people faces infertility issues just due to this, without having any clinical condition.
7. Tubal factor
Fallopian tubes of women are the primary source of conceiving during pregnancy as the ovum swims across it in the process of fertilization. Thus, having an open and functional fallopian tube is necessary for being fertile and at times its dysfunctioning cause infertility in them.
8. Birth defect factor
In many cases, people are born infertile. These defects have nothing to do with the outer environment, rather it is purely a clinical condition. Treating these defects become difficult at times but they always have hope in the advanced IVF treatments to become parents.
9. Peritoneal factor
This factor refers to the peritoneum or the membrane that lines the inside of the abdomen. This is more common in case of females who suffer adhesions, infections or scars from any previous injury or surgery. This makes their endometrium lining thicker leading to infertility issues.
10. Health factors
Certain health factors in both may lead to males and females infertility. Like high blood pressure and blood cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, etc. When the condition of your health is not good, the ability to go through the reproductive phase becomes tougher.
11. Uterine factor
The uterus or uterine cavity of the women play an integral role in the reproductive cycle. The embryo implantation occurs there which leads to further child growth. So a healthy uterus is very necessary for the same, without which chances of fertility is reduced.
12. Unexplained factors
Apart from the given factors, there are other unexplained factors that lead to infertility. In these cases, both the male and female might prove to be fertile in various tests yet failing to conceive even after un-precaution sex. In these cases, taking help of infertility experts and bearing patience is suggested.
The phase of dealing with infertility is not easy for couples today, but the chances of hope are far more than it was a decade back. The various IVF techniques, the surrogacy processes and the several other treatments options have made parenthood possible for many such infertile couples. So, don’t lose hope and consult the infertility experts if you are suffering from the same!
12 Common Factor Affecting Female and male Fertility
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Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine (Singapore)
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