A Detailed Guide to Male Infertility

male infertility treatment

Infertility is common in men and women; according to statistics nearly 1 in every 6 couples in India experience infertility, and in up to half of these couples, male infertility plays a major role. 
Although the problem is common in men, social stigma and taboos revolving around the topic make it hard for men to open up about male infertility.
To make things clear, let’s understand the issue better:

What is male infertility?

Male infertility is a problem with a male’s reproductive system that prevents him from conceiving a child with a female partner despite having unprotected sex for over a year. This is most often due to problems with sperm production or with sperm delivery.

Male reproduction naturally depends on

  • Producing a healthy sperm that can fertilize the egg
  • Having an erection, and ejaculation, so that the sperm can reach the egg

Problems with either of these can result in male infertility. 

What are the causes infertility in male?

Disorders with sperm: One of the common reasons for infertility in male is sperm disorders. The problem lies with sperm shape, quality, quantity, maturity, and ability to swim.
In most cases, low sperm count (oligospermia) or even no sperm count (azoospermia)  is a factor determining male infertility.
Varicoceles: Varicocele is a condition in which the veins around the scrotum are swollen. In this condition, the swelling of vessels blocks the blood flow, this hampers the growth of sperm. This can lead to low sperm count in men.
Obstruction:  In some cases, the tubes through which sperm travel are blocked. Swelling or developmental defects can cause any part of the male reproductive tract to block. 
Due to this, it becomes impossible for the sperm to leave the body while ejaculating.
Retrograde Ejaculation: Semen moves backward in the body during retrograde ejaculation. Instead of semen coming out it goes back into the bladder. 
This happens when nerves and muscles in your bladder don’t close during orgasm (climax).
Signs of retrograde ejaculation are often cloudy urine after ejaculation and less fluid or “dry” ejaculation.
Structural problems: If the genital tract is blocked or stops the flow of semen in any way, it can result in male infertility. May it be genetically or by birth.
Along with this infection or inflammation from STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) can also lead to structural problems. Other reasons include scar tissue or twisted, and swollen veins in the scrotum.
Other causes: Erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation are some of the other causes of infertility in male. Seizure disorders, cancer treatments, and treatments of the liver and kidney also lead to the problems of male infertility in some cases.

What are the signs and symptoms?

The obvious sign of male infertility is the inability to conceive a child. 
However, there are other signs and symptoms you may notice:

  • Difficulty with ejaculation
  • Small volumes of fluid ejaculated
  • Reduced sexual desire
  • Difficulty maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction)
  • Pain, swelling, or a lump in the testicle area


Semen analysis: Fresh semen samples are taken on different days. You will be tested for how much semen you make, how uniform it is, and how acidic it is. 
Semen analysis also studies your sperm count, sperm motility, and shape.
Blood tests: Blood tests help check hormone levels and rule out other problems.
Testicular biopsy: If the semen analysis shows few or no sperms, your doctor may examine a small tissue sample from each testicle.
Other tests: These tests are conducted to determine the cause of sperm abnormalities and problems with the reproductive system. Tests like ultrasound help detect any problems with your testicles, blood vessels, and structures inside the scrotum.


Advanced fertility treatments have proved beneficial in treating male infertility:

  • Surgery: Conditions like varicocele, obstruction, or structural problems can often be surgically corrected.

Also in some cases, surgeries can be performed to retrieve sperms directly from the testicles or epididymis using sperm retrieval techniques like:

TESA (Testicular Sperm aspiration)

MESA (Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) 

PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration)

TESE (Testicular sperm extraction)

  • Artificial insemination: During this method, healthy sperm are placed at the entrance of the cervix or right into the female partner’s uterus. 

The treatment helps cut down the long sperm travel and speeds up the process of fertilization. 

  • IVF and other ART techniques (ICSI, IMSI, PICSI) In vitro fertilization (IVF) and other ART techniques use a single healthy, motile sperm that is injected into a healthy matured egg. 

The process takes place in a lab artificially. Later this fertilized egg is placed back into the female’s uterus.

What when infertility cannot be treated?

In some cases when treatments are not successful or not an option for male infertility, there are other ways to start a family. These options include
Donor Sperm: Although this is a very personal decision for a couple, partners must discuss their feelings and the potential implications of using donor sperm. 
Patients can obtain donor sperm from a known donor or a sperm bank, which also gives a full personal and family history. It also tests individuals for infections and other genetic issues.
Depending on medical necessity, donor sperm can be used for IUI or IVF.

Male infertility care at Progenesis IVF:

No matter what the reason is, we can help you conceive! 

  • Personalized treatment plans
  • Infertility specialists 
  • In-depth analysis of male infertility
  • Advanced ART Technologies (IVF-ICSI, IMSI, PICSI)
  • Highly experienced in treating complex cases of male infertility
  • Transparent and ethical practices
  • Affordable treatment plans
  • Proven treatments and medications for male infertility


Conception is a complicated process, and infertility issues can make it more challenging for aspiring parents. 
Fortunately, some advanced treatments and medications can help increase the chances of conception even in severe cases of male factor infertility. 
Infertility is treatable, with proper treatments, you too can experience the joy of fatherhood. 

Male infertility specialist in India:

Looking for genuine fertility support? Get in touch with the best, call us: +91 70309 44041/ +91 94239 71620

People also ask:

Can cigarette or alcohol consumption affect fertility?

Answer: Yes, addiction is directly related to male infertility causing sperm cells to be smaller and slower. 

Can male infertility go on its own?

Answer: It requires treatments in most cases.

How can the treatment for autoimmune disease affect male fertility?

Answer: These treatments can stop sperm-producing cells from creating sperm. Or it can impact the hormonal pathway for sperm production. Fertility preservation is an option in these cases.

What are the natural ways to boost male fertility?


  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain a healthy diet
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Get proper vitamin C
  • Get adequate sleep

What when there is no treatment available for male infertility?

Answer: In some cases when treatments are not successful or treatment is not an option for male infertility, there are other ways to start a family. These options include the use of donor sperm or adoption.

Which doctor should I consult for male infertility?

Answer: If one experiences the symptoms of male infertility they should get it evaluated by a fertility specialist or expert Andrologists or Urologists specializing in the subject.

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